Jozan Du pastel S. Everette James, S. Rejaie Defining artistic identity in the Florentine Renaissance - Vasari embedded self-portraits and the patrons role University of Pittsburgh USA arta picturii www. His arbitrary or conventional character is compensated and we could say cancelled by the complexity of its symbols.
Although it was adopted by the Council of Europe in and inbecame the official anthem of the European Union it is assumed that the anthem belongs to Europe in a wider sense, both EU members and other European countries.
The anthem is played at official ceremonies involving the European Union and generally at all sorts of events with a European character. Even if the melody and the title remained the official anthem differs from the original version, being reduced to two minutes and Beethovens composition elements being readjusted and bart durham speed dating comercial at lyrics.
Сьюзан понимала, что, по всей логике, именно ей предстояло решить эту задачу.
The official explanation is as follows: there are no words to the anthem; it consists of music only. In the universal language of music, this anthem expresses the European ideals of freedom, peace and solidarity. The idea of unity is present in the reporting to the national anthems: the European anthem is not intended to replace the national anthems of the EU countries but rather to celebrate the values they share.
Even though the formal presentation stated that the European anthem does not replace the national anthems, the question arises: what role does it have? Or more precisely: European anthem meets a similar role with the national anthems at the national level?
Grete Tartler notes that national anthem has a history similar to the flag. Its role was to be used in times with liberating, emotional and commemorative character, to achieve a strong nationalist impact. While the European anthem Ode to Joy from the Ninth Symphony by Beethoven is a tribute to human, freedom and spiritual communion, national anthems as the British and German are in the cited authors opinion clearly against unification with other peoples.
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For example, the German anthem, Deutschland, Deutschland ber alles, remained in the memory of those who listen deeply nationalistic meaning. So is the British anthem, which is written before the French Revolution. It is now almost universally accepted that Deutschland ber alles would mean Germany above all, when in reality meaning was Germany above all else or first of all.
Boia 93 While the first sense would assume primordiality and superiority of the German people over other nations and thus justify the expansionist tendencies, the second, but the original meaning, would assume primacy of the nation over any other values; primordiality should be in the field of options, not of any hierarchy with other nations.
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Of course, the primary meaning has a deeply nationalist character, but not imperialist. It would not incite violence and intolerance. However, the double meaning of the mentioned phrase led to the elimination of the first stanza of the hymn.
We could say that although the later accused was not the original meaning, he was involved in the ambiguity of the phrase, the national socialist ideology contributing to this shift of meaning. Boia considers that this little poem, of an idyllic nationalism that does nothing more than to draw the borders of the country and to provide a list of national values such as German women, German faith, German wine, and German chant reached through undue interpretation, to be considered of a kind of sought for a song that is known to the general public and possibly have a rich tradition.
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The creation of a composer regarded to be a genius was considered more than adequate. The idea of unity present in Schiller's text had a big say.
Not the same with the French anthem. Rather, it came to a completely different route.
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Therefore, Deutschland ber alles is a more reasonable hymn than La Marseillaise. However, censorship is not justified because the intentions with which a hymn was originally written Boia, We do not intend here to compare national anthems and to establish hierarchies of their nationalist character but to analyze the European anthem with possible references to national anthems. The question is: whether the European anthem, designed to operate on the national anthems model, aims to create attachments to gather the masses together in some kind of unifying solidarity, which creates, at the same time, alterity?
Or, though, based on the national model for the simple fact that it is an anthemit is designed for another purpose, to create nonviolent solidarities, to open the citizens of Europe both to one another and to non- Europeans, to promote a European identity built on the unity in diversity? And what characteristics would get it closer to one or another of the alternatives?
According to Grete Tartler, the anthem - which mobilize crowds against each other - has an overwhelming emotional charge. We could say, in other words, the attachments that it creates have a major potential to lead to, what we might call a unity into bart durham speed dating comercial, that brings people together only to send them against others, against foreigners or enemies.
However, the author cited expresses its optimism bart durham speed dating comercial European unity as follows: However, I believe that here Europeanization will have the best chances, in comparison with the rest of the symbols, because Beethovens music exceeds qualitatively the national anthems and most certainly will impose as it is already a part of the collective memory Tartler, The main reasons for Tartlers optimism are the superior musical quality European Anthem and its prior existence in the collective consciousness.
While the second reason may palacios dating played a role, still uncertain, in building a European identity, the first may seem, at first glance, downright naive.
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The powerful attachment to national anthems were not due, most likely, to the musical quality of the songs themselves, but rather to the emotional message, simple and direct, both musically and at the level of meanings. But however Grete Tartler might be right. The aim of the European anthem is not same as that of the national anthems.
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In other words, its benefits may derive precisely from these differences. The musical quality could generate an attitudinal quality, it would reach higher levels of spirit, and the optimistic and relaxed message would lead to openness and tolerance, at acceptance of diversity. It remains to be seen which will be the long term effects of the anthems musical quality.
For now, we will refer to some issues related to its text. Although, they later renounced of the lyrics, their connection with the anthem remains.
In fact, from the beginning, although the song was generally accepted, Schillers lyrics were an obstacle Forns, It is clear that this objection hide a particular type of linguistic or ethnic nationalism that tries to eliminate the very text of a particular language.
Who believes that the universal message of music could eliminate language barriers, he believes that these barriers exist.
Another objection dating de viteză 63 to the fact that the text has a Universalist or global character, not sufficiently linked to Europe it was about union of the entire humanity and European identity. This type of objection shows an attachment to a nationalist view over the anthem.
It must gather, but also to separate, to distancing the people, implying, therefore, the idea of alterity. Removing the lyrics was the easiest way, but it was far from solving the issue: the mentality behind these objections remains.
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Inin the European Parliament, Jim Allister was one of those who opposed the adoption of both flag and anthem: Ode to Joy which we are going to purloin may be a very nice tune, but so is Jingle Bells and like Jingle Bells it heralds a fantasy, the fantasy that the EU is good for you. But unlike Jingle Bells, it will damage your national sovereignty and the right to control your own destiny.
More, like code to destroy, than Ode to Joy. Miller, 8; Forns, Some Eurosceptics have used the European anthem to support the idea that the project of European unification is a failure. For example, iek claimed that the Bart durham speed dating comercial anthem is a true empty signifier that can stand for anything.
Consequently, it would be the expression of an ideology of unification and of the elimination of the inequalities, but with no real basis. This is evident in the attitude towards the situation of those who cannot adapt to this unification.
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As regards the consequences of waiving the anthem lyrics, Johan Forns considers that: 1 at the semantic level, this eliminates a component which Beethoven himself considered it necessary, thereby reducing the force expressiveness of the anthem; 2 on a pragmatic level, it contradicts the original motivation to choose an anthem able to be sung in common, that could help, through its interactive character, to strengthen the feeling of belonging to the European Union Forns Conclusions We note that national flags attachments sometimes lead to fetishism, to idolatry; flags are preserved and defended the sanctity, and people die for the flag just as they die for their country.
We cannot ignore these issues that generate deepen alterity and under the sign of the defending of the country they hide ardent opposition, hostile passions which often constitute the base for conflicts between nations or ethnicities.
In summary, the European flag symbols refer to unity, perfection, mobility, openness, permanence or durability, close the gaps. In other words, even the key elements of European unity. Flag symbolically reflects European values and ideals. His arbitrary or conventional character is compensated and we could say cancelled by the complexity of its symbols.
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But, the flag is still the state emblem, for which many have given their lives; is hard to believe that someone would give his life for the European flag. As regarding the European Anthem, the national model is also visible. Even if its purpose is to express the European democratic values, to consolidate European unity and strengthen the feeling of belonging to a wider community than the nation, it is still bound to the tradition the national state.
Removing the anthem from the original context in which music and lyrics were created,